Component Lead:Dr Moses Mwangi

Theme: Use of Sustainable Natural Resource Management Strategies to Enhance Water and Food security for Sustainable Livelihoods of Smallholder Farmers

Activity One

Activity Tittle: Research on Presumptive Illusions Obfuscating Community Participation in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands Water Innovative Researches: Study Case of Dew and Fog Harvesting in Kajiado County

Activity Rationale

The desire for the research is driven by aspirations of community participation in development projects. This has become an important element in the design and implementation of development projects. The aim of community participation in projects is not only to reverse the existing power relations in a manner that creates agency and voice for the poor but also to allow the poor to have more control over development assistance. It is expected that this could result in the allocation of development funds in a manner that is more responsive to the needs of the poor, better targeting of poverty programs, more responsive government and better delivery of public goods and services, better maintained community assets, and a more informed and involved citizenry that is capable of undertaking self-initiated development activity.

Dew drops and fog can actually be a source of drinking water. It can be a cost-effective option in water-stressed regions, with quantities varying with collection and storage designs and, the amount of water in the atmosphere. However, little is known on how best to carry out dew and fog harvesting. In the circumstances, development support agencies have been introducing it to communities through research approaches with minimal beneficiary participation. Most of the systems have ended up being not sustainable, and likely limited data provision from the experiments. Being a viable water resource, it is important to have whole information on the best practices necessary in efforts to provide the best practices that would make dew and fog harvesting provide reliable water supply systems. This should range from beneficiaries involvement in related researches to actual development and, management. The planned research aims at identifying and filling the gaps related to researches on dew and fog harvesting particularly on the aspects of beneficiaries and stakeholders involvement. As a result, the technology innovators, support agencies and, researchers are of interest in obtaining information and data.

Objective

The main goal of the study is to contribute to debate on understanding of essences of stakeholders’ participation in research, development and management in offering alternative and appropriate water supplies.

Sub-Objectives

  1. To establish the platform under which the dew and fog collection projects are identified and, the factors affecting community participation in the selected CBD projects
  2. To access aspects of stakeholders involvement in construction, monitoring and evaluation and, operation and maintenance of dew and fog collection projects through identification of the relationship between community participation and project outcomes in the selected CBD projects;
  3. To find out the extent to which community participation in dew and fog collection leads to sustainability of resultant projects and possible best practices in stakeholder involvement in new innovations.

Sub-Activities

  1. Field Data Collection
  2. Data Keying in and Analysis
  3. Report Writing
  4. Disseminations
  5. Quarterly Progress Reporting

Dissemination

The dissemination of findings will follow the ASALI dissemination strategy that has been intentionally developed to broadcast knowledge accrued from the component activities researches. In efforts to communicate knowledge to target audiences so that it may be used to lead to change, the activity will continuously identify recipients of potential adopters through an assessment of climate of readiness for change and, enabling transfer of activity outcomes. This will take care of the challenge to improve the accessibility of desired knowledge products by those they are intended to reach. Overall, dissemination will take the following forms:

  1. Scientific papers
  2. Exposure to field experiments
  3. Outreach activities
  4. Stakeholder participation
  5. Workshops and seminars
  6. Electronic media
  7. Print media
  8. News releases
  9. Blogs.
  10. Mass emails
  11. Text messages.
  12. Social networking websites.
  13. Government websites
  14. Communitywebsites
  15. Public announcements.
  16. Newsletter
  17. Pamphlets
  18. Brochures
  19. Video recording and circulation
  20. Field days

Activity Two

Activity Title: Study onExploitation of Alluvial Aquifers in Livelihoods Support in the Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Activity Rationale

It is found prudent to have some field surveys on utilization of alluvial aquifers for food security in the ASALs as this lacks along the ASALI transect. It is proposed to carry out some field surveys in two locations - one in Kitui County and the other in Kajiado County. While the former area is comprised of agropastoralists, the latter houses pure pastoralists. Thus, a Kajiado case (Toroka River) would shine some more light on the social and economic transformations taking place among the pastoralists, more so in terms of food security for human and livestock and the implications to the local alluvial aquifers. The Kitui one (Tiva River) are expected to reveal the level and changes in the use of alluvial aquifers in their environment for food security in both social and economic terms. In either county, the single seasonal rivers selected and studied on exploitation of the alluvial aquifers for food security followed. A distance of not less than 5km stretches on either side of the rivers along interests on among others, a) whattype of food security activities are in practice; b) who is involved in food security activities; c) whyfood security activities are a necessity in the area; d) which type of water abstraction means are preferred and, the reasons for choice; e) what the environmental consequences of the undertakings to the alluvial aquifer are; f) what the advantages of using alluvial aquifers in food production are; f) what the limitations in usage of the alluvial aquifers for food production are and, g) what sustainable measures are essential in usage of alluvial aquifers for food security.

Objective

The overall objective is to discern the contribution of the alluvial aquifers in support to livelihoods sustenance for food security in the arid and semi-arid lands of Kenya.

Sub-objectives

The study aspires to meet the needs of four sub-objectives as follows:

  1. to establish the rationale and practices in exploitation of alluvial aquifers for food security;
  2. to assess the technologies in application in terms of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats;
  3. to weigh the effects and impacts of using alluvial aquifers in food security;
  4. to distinguish and appreciate the existing and potential sustainable practices in access and use of alluvial aquifers for food security in the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya;

Sub-Activities

  1. Recruitment and Training of Research Assistants
  2. Field Data Collection along Toroka River
  3. Field Data Collection along Tiva River
  4. Data Keying in and Analysis
  5. Report Writing
  6. Disseminations

Disseminations

The dissemination of findings will follow the ASALI dissemination strategy that has been intentionally developed to broadcast knowledge accrued from the component activities researches. In efforts to communicate knowledge to target audiences so that it may be used to lead to change, the activity will continuously identify recipients of potential adopters through an assessment of climate of readiness for change and, enabling transfer of activity outcomes. This will take care of the challenge to improve the accessibility of desired knowledge products by those they are intended to reach. Dissemination will overall take the following forms:

a) Scientific Papers
b) Exposure to Field experiments
c) Outreach Activities
d) Stakeholder Participation
e) Workshops and Seminars
f) Radio and Television
g) Print Media
h) News Releases
i) Blogs
j) Mass Emails
k) Text messages
l) Social Networking Websites.
m) Government Websites
n) Community Websites
o) Public Announcements.
p) Newsletter
q) Pamphlets
r) Brochures
s) Video Recording and Circulation
t) Field days

Activity Three

Activity Title: Study onDew and Fog Harvesting inSouthEasternKenya University

Activity Rationale

The aim of the research project is to demonstrate that atmospheric moisture can be harvested and processed into safe drinking water comparable in quality. The research proposes to experiment on harvesting dew and fog that naturally forms on rooftops as a source of potable water.Rooftops made out of galvanizediron,plastic sheets, clay tiles, grass orglass,in regions that experience the righ weather conditions will naturally produce a significant amount of dew.Simply by collecting this dew,a amilycan gather some water per dew night.The water boxxes that will be used to grow crops will provide a forum to compare them against local materials with a view to having alternatives. This work is envisaged to offer a description of how to build a dew or fog collection rig.The results will assistin development of dew harvest systems,making and testing of prototypes.Unfortunately,dew and fog fall is not currently recorded in most standard meteorological archives;so the next step for this project is to offer are liable meansof regional assessment that is accessible to lay men.

Objective

Theoverallobjectiveoftheresearchprojectistodemonstratethatdew and fog harvestingcangreatly contributeto increasedhouseholdwatersupply and food security intheASALareas.


Specific Objectives

  1. To determinetheeffectivenessofdew and fog harvestingusinglocallyimprovisedmaterials and, standardizedharvestersin collectingsubstantialamountof water for household needs and food crops growth.
  2. To testtheeconomicvariabilityofdew and fog harvestingtechnologies inhouseholdwater supply and food insecurity alleviation.
  3. To assessthequalityoftheharvestedwater for human and food crops sustenance.

Sub-Activities

  1. Proposal Development
  2. Budget Presentation and Approvals
  3. Materials and Equipment Acquisition
  4. Setting up of Project
  5. Dew Collection, Monitoring and Reporting
  6. Water Quality Assessment
  7. Quarterly Progress Reporting

Disseminations

The dissemination of findings will follow the ASALI dissemination strategy that has been intentionally developed to broadcast knowledge accrued from the component activities researches. In efforts to communicate knowledge to target audiences so that it may be used to lead to change, the activity will continuously identify recipients of potential adopters through an assessment of climate of readiness for change and, enabling transfer of activity outcomes. This will take care of the challenge to improve the accessibility of desired knowledge products by those they are intended to reach. Dissemination will overall take the following forms:

  1. Scientific Papers
  2. Exposure to Field experiments
  3. Outreach Activities
  4. Stakeholder Participation
  5. Workshops and Seminars
  6. Radio and Television
  7. Print Media
  8. News Releases
  9. Blogs
  10. Mass Emails
  11. Text messages
  12. Social Networking Websites.
  13. Government Websites
  14. Community Websites
  15. Public Announcements.
  16. Newsletter
  17. Pamphlets
  18. Brochures
  19. Video Recording and Circulation
  20. Field days